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  • Adam Bartsch

DNR/COLST: Next Level Planning for End-of-Life Care

Soon after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was introduced in 1960, it became a routine emergency procedure to revive victims of a heart attack. The presumption was that all patients consented to this treatment, and of course, most did. However, CPR can have ill effects. According to medical studies, after applying CPR, average survival rates leading to hospital discharge are only 10-15%. Patients often suffer complications including broken ribs, permanent neurological problems and impaired functional abilities. Psychological harms can also lower survivors’ quality of life. Concerns arose that for some patients, including those who are near death and those where quality of life is severely impaired, CPR causes more harm than good.


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2017 - 03, Levels of Medical Directives
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